Course Background and Overview
From their early years children process and internalize their personal everyday experiences with the world around them, constructing conceptions and representations that are often complex and rather general. This early knowledge is formed on the basis of children’s interaction with the natural, social and cultural environment in which they develop, while it often diverges from the knowledge taught at school. The conceptions held by children about natural entities and phenomena influence the way they understand science activities in the classroom and consequently what they learn in the context of formal schooling.
Many different types of preschool programs and early education philosophies have been implemented for many years. The philosophy that a school employs will impact the centre’s learning goals, how the teacher interacts with the students, and the kinds of toys and materials available in the classroom.
REGGIO EMILIA APPROACH:
This is a school education system started with the attempt of founding a school where parents and children can study in a town that named Reggio Emilia with 150.000 citizens in the North of Italia, after the World War II. Loris Malaguzzi is the creator and the leader of this approach. With the thoughts of “Education is the right of every child” and “there are many things that will be learned from children”, it is based that the families and the schools should work together in order to children’ getting a more qualified education.
According to this approach, children look for the answers about the meaning of life. It has been needed to not to hurry up to give the answers to them, and to encourage them to find answers to the questions on their own. One thing that is needed to do in early childhood is to create a supportive and encouraging their improvement and to give an opportunity for the improvement of their ideas. Children have much more creative, intellectual and communicative potentials, and every one of them should be respected. Children are the individuals who create theories, produce knowledge, observe, gain active experiences, and have different features in pointing of emotion and mind.
In the Reggio Emilia approach, the concrete lives are offered to the children and it is helped them to gain new experiences in this direction. Children are the individuals who search, produce and test things they produce. They can utilize from many of the symbolic devices while they are explaining themselves. For example, these devices can be a picture, a statue, music, shadow plays, and dramatic plays. In the Reggio approach, it is called that “The face language of the child.” It is believed that children have many languages that they use in order to make visible their emotions and thoughts. By means of these languages, children’s thinking symbolic, creativeness and communication skills are improved.
The class ambit can be thought of as “teacher’s himself.” However, not only the physical features of this ambiance but also the interactions that are actualized in the ambiance are the parts that cannot be differed. Therefore, there is a big place in order to simplify the communication between the children and adults that all children and teachers can be involved together. Classes are founded around this big open area. Children and adults use this place throughout the day. In the Reggio schools; in the sense of ‘Nobody has the chance of seeing himself as others see.’ there is put mirrors on the walls as angular and near to each other and it is provided that children see themselves as others see.
The class ambiance is relaxing, inspiring and aesthetic. All of the classrooms are opened to a courtyard named “piazza”. In each of the courtyards, there is a drama place (that is included with the motorcycle helmets, various costumes, glasses, and bags) and there is an atelier with glazing. In this atelier, there are residual materials in order to children’s making different types of art activities with Reggio Emilia methods and techniques.
In the classes, it is prioritized that simplicity and clearness of these classrooms. There are wide windows and a class area, and the ambiance is lighted-well. There is not much more furniture in the classrooms, instead of this, various visual materials like children’s works, pictures, the photographs of the projects that are completed, the products that are emerged, the photographs of children’s together with their parents are shown. The education ambiance is used as a device in order to strengthen the relationship between the teachers and the parents. In this approach, a communication network that doesn’t end is assured by informing parents often.
In the Reggio Emilia schools, a learning that is based on the projects is a principle. The knowledge that is wanted to gain to children is not given as didactic, instead of this; child’s gaining the knowledge by means of the activities and projects is aimed. Thanks to this, children have the possibility of learning by living. Projects, by being planned according to children’s interests, performed as a small number of groups. These start with mathematics, stories, pictures, statues, music and social interests of them, it can be short or long term. The documents, photographs of the project and the works of children are shown at the walls of the school.
Projects allow children to learn specific subjects in depth. In addition to this, these projects are the working methods that children have knowledge about an issue that they are interested and they are willing to learn by using their own experiences.
By this method, children’s confidence increase, and they enjoy the ability to search for the knowledge, finding from their early ages, and they experience having knowledge in depth about an issue.
We encounter a generation that often spends their 0-5 ages in the walls with televisions, mobile phones and tablets, and grows up with the rote-based learning curriculum in their 6+ ages. However, our children need not look away to the life, stones, animals, nature; they need to the friendship of them. They become productive with the unlimited energy and imagination in their inner.
At this point, the Reggio Emilio method existed with the motto of “Another world is possible” is used as medicine for all the negativities.
Children, who are congenitally talented, who have self-management, productive, know powerful themselves get an education that is based on a project and natural in a classroom ambiance that is set up as in an appropriate way and with the belief of “the third teacher is the environment.” The teacher is at a position that is always learning and researching. In the Reggio Emilia approach that is like a compass, the parent, instead of slighting at a point that he doesn’t know anything about, says “I don’t know anything about this but I will help you after searching.” and takes into account a child contributes the child with the searches made himself by giving the answers that child want to his learning by living.
Reggio Emilia, contributes to child’s setting up a safe connection between the child and his friends and his environment, while it tries to child’s being independent, making cakes with them, playing with the water and foams, and makes what the child’s want with great love.
As a result, Reggio Emilia is an ideal education method for the parents who want to not ending the joy of children, disappearing of their dreams, and fading away from the colors of them.
It is an educational system that emerged in Stuttgart, Germany in 1919 after the First World War.
The Waldorf Approach is a method used widely in today’s schools following the conference was given to the workers of a factory in Stuttgart by philosophy, scientist and educator Rudolf Steiner.
In the Waldorf approach, the idea of ‘making everything in its own time’ is in the foreground. It is argued that it is wrong to determine the school age of the children according to the calendar and that the important development for children is individual development. Children should be able to get rid of memorization and oppression and undergo a learning process in rhythmic and everyday life, intertwined with nature. In order to eliminate this pressure, the Waldorf approach does not include applications such as grade system, classroom, homework.
Blended with games, keeping the child’s interest alive, making more interesting the teaching approach. At this stage, the duty of teachers is to raise free people and to see the teacher as art rather than a profession. In the Waldorf system, teachers should be educators who make spiritual communication with students, force children’s imagination and prioritize emotional intelligence.
Another important point in the Waldorf system is that it prefers a life intertwined with nature. Students are away from technology up to a certain age; they only relate to natural means. There are no plastic toys in the classroom. Toys with natural materials such as tree branches, wood, cotton, wool are invented. This invention is aimed at improving manual dexterity. It brings students closer to the branches of fine arts such as carving and sculpture.
A Waldorf approach is a holistic approach that aims to transform education into an art.
One of the biggest concerns begins that when he becomes a parent. These concerns start with the subject for the baby’s feeding, sleeping and more and continue as the baby grows; the most important issue is stuck in education. Up to this stage, you can go to the selection by visiting one of the most important points for the product. Up to this stage, you can go to the selection by visiting any store one of the most important points for the product. However, you cannot make such a choice for your child’s education.
However, the economic, social and cultural structure of the society affects more schools and the schools are no longer just a place for education and training, but also for social support and so on. The services are that the necessity of being a multi-purpose and multidimensional organization.
In order to solve the growing educational problems, different educational reforms are tried to be realized all over the world, and these reform initiatives can bring success and failure. One of the alternative methods of education for this purpose is the Waldorf Approach. The Waldorf Approach, which defines the education system as distant education, conscious behavior, have been supported by the anthroposophical movement which has the meaning in the definition of knowledge produced by the supreme self of man. Rudolf Steiner, who was interested in philosophy and eastern mysticism, opposed the thought structure he devised and ignored the voluntary and emotional side of the human being, who gave importance to reason with the philosophy he called Anthroposophy (human wisdom). According to Steiner, due to the importance is given to human beings, people became individuals, but because the will and emotional structure of the human being were ignored, fragmentation between the social and natural life and the human was formed. Steiner argued that this fragmentation would inevitably lead to destruction. Steiner, the founder of Anthropophagia, founded a school which he called lad School of Spiritual Science school in order to apply his views and named it Goetheanum.
The Right Choice for Your Child.
As parents who are considering private education, we may feel unsure about which school would be the best fit for our child. Academics are important, but we want assurance that they will have a strong foundation to meet the future success in these times of global change.
Through a progressive developmental based approach to education, Marin Waldorf School has been helping Bay Area parents raise confident, self-reliant, resilient and morally intelligent children for the past 40 years. Waldorf education goes beyond the development of the intellect, focusing on the development of the whole human being and helping children bring goodness, beauty, and truth into the world.
What’s the Waldorf Approach aims?
The mission of the Waldorf Approach is to raise consciousness, creative, innovative children who are capable of shaping the future of economics, justice, and cultural freedom.
Basic Principles of Waldorf Approach;
1. Education will be continuous for twelve years and students will not be directed to different types of education. Since the student is expected to advance and master in his own direction when he reaches the maturity when he has reached the maturity where he can gain his self and make the right decisions, he continues his education at the Waldorf school from kindergarten to high school.
2. Every child is considered to have different individual characteristics and superior abilities. When planning the education, children should not learn what they need to learn but what they can learn. It is aimed that the child develops and maximizes all the abilities he has.
3. How the world and life have a rhythm. The human organism also has a certain rhythm. Man matures in this rhythm. The shaping energy that provides human development focuses on the development of will, emotion and thought in different times in line with this rhythm. However, after reaching an adequate maturity in a field, one must proceed to the next level in education.
4. The school must be free of all economic and political control. Therefore, the fact that the school has a democratic structure independent of the state constitutes the basis of the Waldorf education’s concept of freedom. In addition, each school organizes its curriculum according to the community. Thus, it is possible to relate the subjects to be learned with the child’s life.
5. The school should be managed by teachers. There is no hierarchy in school management. Teachers determine the functioning of the school in accordance with the principles of Steiner.
6. During the eight years of primary education, a class must continue and complete its education with the same class teacher. The teacher can better associate the subject with the child’s life at that level and the more opportunities he knows about the child and the circumstances in which he/she lives, and the more opportunities to support the child’s development.
7. The evaluation system is different in Waldorf education. The purpose of the assessment is not to classify the child with a note, but to get to know him better and to better monitor his progress. Teachers prepare long reports on the development of each child. Small grades are not allowed. In this way, the evaluation starts in high school. Teachers visit home. Another aim of the evaluation is to make the child aware of his / her development and to make him feel the enthusiasm of learning and producing more.
8. The child needs to develop as a whole. For this purpose, equal importance is given to areas such as the acquisition of knowledge, application of skill, strengthening of creativity, stimulation of imagination, nutrition of understanding and empathy feelings, the importance of social responsibility and moral principles. The subject covered is processed in all its aspects.
The first women doctor of Italia, pedagogic doctor, and anthropology professor Maria Montessori (1870-1952) created a pedagogy that will contribute to the individual improvement of every children. These are:
-Field of interests
-The speed of individual learning
In addition, she had cleared out that the mental disorder is mostly a pedagogic problem. So, she created her own methods by developing the former methods. She achieved greater successes with the groups that she taught them on their own.
In 06.01.1907, she founded the first children house. In this house, it had been researched that what are the things that children are interested in. These are the things that they do not like:
- The education processes that are programmed by the adults for them
- Sugars and cookies
- The teacher tables
- Collective classes
- In this house, it had been cleared out that they like these:
- The free choice
- Controlling their own faults
- Their own creating and shaping of the social relationships
- Their environments’ being clean and ordered
- The discipline that they will create with the free activities
- The writing and reading without memorizing
– These are stands for an important place for the individual improvements of children. The methods used in educational process are not determinant factors, the actual factors are the determinant ones. In this educational program, these are the important thoughts:
- The child is special and he is just one, and he is the specific.
- He absorbs the material world, and he builds his own character.
- With these buildings, they are unaware of their becoming architects.
So, adults should not stop their works of building by interferences. For this education, preparing an environment is important. These environments should be prepared related to children’s fields of interests and skills. So, materials, time and place for children should not be restricted. In addition, they should have the opportunities to repeat whenever they want.
Physical and mental hygiene for children are so important at this point, and supports of the adults for children take an important role in their lives at these ages. With the progresses of this education module, a new system is existed that is created and developed by its own.
The ORFF education stands an important place in the children education. It is about the rhythmical intelligence and harmony of a child. So, with this education model, the identifying of the intelligence of a child with the music and instruments would be easier. Then, that child’s harmony between his body, movement, dance and music is identified. This education model was founded by the Carl Orff and Gunild Keetman. It is not just a music education. It is about the physical balance of a child, the mental improvement, verbal skills and their improvement, the artistic improvement, etc.
Then, the education methods and techniques in the shape of a game will be introduced. Then first instruments will be:
- The empty bottles
- The wooden pieces
- The dried buds
From these instruments, firstly we hear only random voices. Then, these voices turn into tunes and songs in some basic forms. Then, these tunes also turn into longer tunes. In this point, the children’s reactions should be analyzed in terms of their communication skills.
In this education model, the children should read the music and its tunes, and write it. Besides, the team-working activities, extemporization skills, and their creativity will be improved by this techniques and methods.
Then, other musical instruments have been developed for this education. Some of them:
- The rhythm bars
- The bells
- The kettledrums
- The gongs
- The xylophones
- The maracas
- The castanets
- The tambourines
- The glockenspielist
- The drums
- To remove the walls that protects the development of children
- Let their curiosity raise and not to strict them
- Developing methods for children’s growing up properly
- Supporting children’s learning their environment and cultures with their own consciousness,
- Providing children’s knowing the natural sources instead of going on their life with the technological tools.
- To create education environments and ambiances that is modified to the Reggio Emilia approach, and disseminate this approach among the pre-school education.
- Making teachers sources for the children to answer their questions at that ages.
The aim of Waldorf Approach training is to create self-consciousness. Self is the way of learning, motivating, thinking, motivating, creative, inventive, self-confident, effective and many more.
Developmental approach; In the Waldorf education the curriculum should go parallel with the child’s intuition; right thing at the right time. According to Steiner, the purpose of the learning rhythm between mental and physical activities is to provide the development of the spiritual body, where intrinsic strength and flexibility increase. For this purpose, physical education teachers in normal schools need more than anatomy and physiology knowledge.
- Excluding the fears of being tested and examination of the children
- Growing up more courageous individuals
- Excluding the normal children’s prejudices to disabled ones
- Student’s being followed and analyzed even after their Montessori education.
- Combining and including them into a free and environment education.
- To help their starting period to the adulthood ages without the fears of being tested
- Finding out the musical talents of the pre-school students aged between 2-6
- Becoming an institution that is preferred in pre-school education, reliable and in a high quality
- Increasing the creativity
- Providing the social activities and social inclusions of the children
- Children’s recognizing the music and its tunes
- Developing children’s skills of taking roles in the groups
- Children’s getting to know the techniques of using the rhythm tools
- Children’s distinguishing the thin and the thick, long and short tunes of the sounds.
- Finding out children’s music, dance and rhythm skills in their early ages
The teachers’ duties and tasks
- They should learn the methods, techniques and activities and improve them in learning the musical instruments using in Orff.
- They should disseminate the Orff education in the schools that they work in.
- They should have the professional skills in European standards.
- Identifying the students who have the musical talent, notifying them the superior educational institution, and notifying their parents, too.
- Supporting them.
- Making a curriculum and an educational plan for them.
CONTENT AND METHODOLOGY:
Methods: Lectures, exercises, discussions, teamwork, role-playing, study visits
Course Topics: Children education, self-learning
PROGRAM (Training activities):
- PPT slides
- Sharing thoughts and ideas with the group
- Sightseeing and the school visits
PREPARATION: After confirming registration, participants will be informed about the details of the course (arrival, daily program). Participants will be able to introduce themselves and bring a few examples of routines and practices that they apply to their teaching.
Module 1 : Children’s learning on their own
Module 2 : Learning by living
Module 3 : Discovering environment
Module 4 : The basic elements of Reggio Emilia schools
Module 5 : Learning the history of Waldorf Education
Module 6 : The key point in Waldorf (Children Development)
Module 7 : Developing a curriculum for Waldorf Approach in schools and following it
Module 8 : Education children in creativity and creative games
Module 9 : Teachers’ role in the eyes of children in education
Module 10 : Training of the teachers with Waldorf approach
Module 11 : Individual improvement processes of children
Module 12 : Ability to do tasks of their own
Module 13 : The conscious of taking responsibilities of their own
Module 14 : Preparing appropriate ambiance for children
Module 15 : Introducing to ORFF to everyone as possible and disseminate it
Module 16 : Eurythmic skills
Module 17 : Music and dance activities with basic rhythm instruments
Module 18 : Teaching to research skills for pre-school students
- They can specify the basic problems and concerns that are related to the Early Childhood Education that is defined in 2020 ET.
- They can differentiate the similarities and differences of Reggio Emilia in classical education.
- They will debate the advantages and disadvantages of Reggio Emilia.
- They will describe the roles of the teacher in pre-school education with Reggio Emilia.
- They will find the ways of including the parents in the school system.
- They encourage the children to be more independent and to be prone to the learning on their own.
- They will find an opportunity to see the roles of the materials that are used in the approach and are effective in the improvement of the children (tree branches, sand, clay, soil, mirror…etc.) like playing rhythms, stories, and pictures; and the games.
- They will understand various assessment methods that are used in the Reggio Emilia schools.
- They will give importance to the children’s creativeness and improve it in the pre-school age.
- They will have an idea about how the pre-school ambiance will be prepared with the Reggio Emilia philosophy by uncovering of the children’s individual features.
Teachers will gain so many acquisitions within the terms of educating children who are in their early-childhood. So, Waldorf Approach is an education approach and, a curriculum for primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers. This education module is useful for teachers’ directing their own children. Besides the game activities in Waldorf education, teachers will teach the eurythmy to their children. The teachers should be experienced about the Waldorf education system in order to educate their students in a more proper way.
- Teachers will learn how to touch upon the needs of children in the time that they are growing up.
- Teachers will learn how to answer the questions of children in that age.
- Teachers will learn how to develop education models for their children.
- At the end of these approaches, children will also learn doing by living and they will face across the self-consciousness at growing age.
Teachers will have some opportunities to have some opportunities after this course:
- They will learn about how they can train their students without interrupting them
- They will be experienced on how can increase their rates of the balance and harmony in the society
- They will learn about the benefits and contributes of the Montessori Education to the children
- They will learn about preparing the materials and environments appropriate to the children
- They can grow up more courageous individuals for future
- They will learn about the ORFF education, its methods and techniques
- They will have the ability to identify the children who have the rhythmical skills
- They will research more for their students
- They will learn how to combine the artistic studies of the children and how to implement them
- Introduction to the course:
-Explaining of the Early childhood age and the caring targets that are defined in the 2020 ET.
-Giving information about the programs that are used in pre-school education fields in Europe.
-Focusing on the Reggio Emilio Philosophy
-Why the Reggio Emilio Philosophy should be used in the pre-school education institutions?
-Why should “Game Engineering with Waldorf Approach” training be taken?
-Preparing the environment for The Game Engineering with Waldorf Approach for children.
-The develop for students’ original and creative thinking skills, understanding the teaching methods and techniques
-What is Montessori? Who discovered this education?
-How this person contributed the children’s own learning and in which aspects?
-The benefits of rhymical and musical education of children to their inclusion to the society in their later professional and individual lives
• The introducing of Reggio Emilio and it explaining conceptually.
• Explaining and debating the strong and weak aspects of Reggio Emilio
• What are the features and purposes of the Reggio Emilio?
• Giving information about the example schools that use Reggio Emilio Philosophy
• How to prepare and select the arguments, toys, tools etc. that constitutive Game Engineering with Waldorf Approach,
• To teach the activities, classroom management techniques and guidance processes that will enable our students to transform their ideas into a project, a work of art
• How to play with them
• Communication styles for children
• A session about the individual skills of the children
• Their fields of interests
• The self-learning of the children without interfere of the parents or the teachers
• The learning environments of the children and their own adaptation
• Introduction of musical and rhythmical intelligences of the children
• The balance of body, movement and dance-music.
• The benefits of this education to their artistic development in a general circle
- Giving information about the materials that are used in the Reggio Emilio Philosophy like pictures, statues, music, shadow plays, dramatic plays and toys, and various tools.
- Preparing the classroom ambiance that reflects the Reggio Emilio Philosophy “piazza”.
- An activity that will provide for students’ ideas to turn into a project, and they will learn the process of the class administration and guidance
- How to Prepare activities by using teaching objects like natural toys, tools, games and some teaching modules, etc. for learners who will benefit from the Waldorf approach. From these activities, they can ask questions and searching answer for the questions discussed their thoughts and ideas.
- How to prepare and implement activities that lead children to think and develop creative ideas.
- The main concerns about Waldorf Education
- Talking about the Waldorf Philosophy
Talking about the characteristic features of children
- Pedagogical problems
- Creating solution to these problems
- The methods and techniques for children’s discovering of life
- The introduction of Carl Orff and Gunild Keetman
- Musical, balance, intelligential improvement, artistic improvement
- Some practices with basic instruments used in the Orff Education
- The role of the teacher in the Reggio Emilio
- What are the needed things in order to be a Reggio Emilio teacher?
- Explaining what the slogan “The face of the child” means.
- The role of the educators on the improvement of self-governance mechanisms of the children in the Reggio Emilio schools.
- Application of examples and activities that lead to establishing a relationship between the Waldorf Approach and students.
- A way of Preparing a curriculum to be used during the training we will organize in creative workshops
- Talking about children’s love to do or do not love to do
- Talking about how should we behave them
- Long-learning of the children
- Creating attractive activities for them
- The educational methods and techniques shaped in games
- The first instruments in Orff Education
- Their fields of usage and the analysis of the topic
- What are the utilities of the Reggio Emilio on students?
- Studies on the evaluating ways of the Reggio Emilio Philosophy and specifying the important points.
- A discussion about that curriculum and how can teachers implement it in the academic years.
- Thinking about the appropriate ambiances for students for their outdoor activities in Waldorf Approach.
- Examples of the techniques and methods used in worldwide Waldorf schools
- Introduction of the process of the formation of the characteristics of the children and their improvement
- The techniques about how can read and write without memorizing
- Their learning activities without being tested and children psychology
- Their skills and using their skills on their own since their born
- Sounds, tunes and longer tunes and their identifying
- The analyzing of children’s reactions
- A session about how teachers can make their lessons with Art &Music activities, and how can they include their students to the social activities
- Thinking about the appropriate activities for children
- The relationship between Waldorf and Philosophy
- The best philosophic practice methods
- Talking about the importance and factors that are determinant elements in Montessori Education
- The discipline that is managed by their own wish to work
- Their styles of expressing themselves and active personalities
- Children’s reading and writing the music’s sounds rather than only hearing it
- Teamworking, extemporization, and creativity skills
- The benefits of music and the rhythm to the children who are in their growing up ages
- Making a general look for the course program
- Evaluating the course program and filling the feedback forms.
- School Visiting
- Giving the participation certificates.
CERTIFICATIONS: At the end of the course; participants will take ”Certificate of Participant”, ”Europass Mobility Certificate”, ”Staff Mobility Agreement‘‘ certificates.